^ Tranah, Gregory J.; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L.; Ancoli‐Israel, Sonia; Paudel, Misti L.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Cauley, Jane A.; Redline, Susan; Hillier, Teresa A. (2011). "Circadian activity rhythms and risk of incident dementia and mild cognitive impairment in older women". Annals of Neurology. 70 (5): 722–732. doi:10.1002/ana.22468. ISSN 1531-8249.
Throughout the decades as more research and studies were conducted, the amount of sleep disorders being discovered began to rapidly increase. In 1990 The AASM, along with other professional societies including the European Sleep Research Society, The Japanese Society of Sleep Research, and the Latin American Sleep Society published the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), which is a "primary diagnostic, epidemiological, and coding resource for clinicians and researchers in the field of sleep and sleep medicine."

Chronic sleep disorders in childhood, which affect some 70% of children with developmental or psychological disorders, are under-reported and under-treated. Sleep-phase disruption is also common among adolescents, whose school schedules are often incompatible with their natural circadian rhythm. Effective treatment begins with careful diagnosis using sleep diaries and perhaps sleep studies. Modifications in sleep hygiene may resolve the problem, but medical treatment is often warranted.[35]

According to one meta-analysis, the mean prevalence rate for North America and Western Europe is estimated to be 14.5±8.0%. Specifically in the United States, the prevalence of restless leg syndrome is estimated to be between 5 and 15.7% when using strict diagnostic criteria. RLS is over 35% more prevalent in American women than their male counterparts.[68]


Some of the biggest differences between the 2nd and 3rd editions are how the various sleep disorders were divided into categories. The 2005 edition used 3 broad categories to organize all of the sleep disorders under either dysommnias (disorders making getting to sleep or staying asleep difficult), parasomnias (disorders that intrude into the sleep process), and sleep disorders associated with a mental, neurologic, or other medical disorders (disorders whose symptoms are not primary unto themselves but caused by other conditions).
Recent studies, however, have shown that several factors can interrupt this neurogenesis.[29] These include stress and prolonged sleep deprivation (more than one day).[29] The sleep disturbances encountered in AD could therefore suppress neurogenesis and thus impairing hippocampal functions.[29] This would therefore contribute to diminished memory performances and the progression of AD.[29] And progression of AD would aggravate sleep disturbances.[29] It is a second vicious circle.  
Insomnias This type of sleep disorder involves the inability to fall asleep or stay asleep. MORE>>Hypersomnias Hypersomnias are a group of sleep disorders that causes a person to be excessively sleepy. People with a hypersomnia may fall asleep at times that are inconvenient or even dangerous, such as at work or while driving. MORE>>Sleep Related Breathing Disorders Sleep disorders that involve difficulty breathing during sleep are classified as sleep related breathing disorders. Obstructive sleep apnea is the most common disorder of this type, however there are a number of variations of sleep apnea. MORE>>Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders Conditions in which the sleep times are out of alignment. A patient with one of these disorders does not follow the normal sleep times at night. MORE>>Parasomnias Parasomnias are a group of sleep disorders that involve unwanted events or experiences that occur while you are falling asleep, sleeping or waking up. MORE>>Sleep Movement Disorders This classification of sleep disorders includes conditions that cause movement during or prior to sleep. These disorders can make it difficult to fall asleep or stay asleep, or to get restful sleep. MORE>>
Women often experience sleepless nights and daytime fatigue in the first and third trimesters of their pregnancy. During the first trimester, frequent trips to the bathroom and morning sickness may disrupt sleep. Later in pregnancy, vivid dreams and physical discomfort may prevent deep sleep. After delivery, the new baby's care or the mother's postpartum depression may interrupt sleep.
^ Jump up to: a b c Cao, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Shi-Bin; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Zhang, Ling; Ungvari, Gabor S.; Ng, Chee H.; Li, Lu; Chiu, Helen F. K.; Lok, Grace K. I. (2017-02-24). "The prevalence of insomnia in the general population in China: A meta-analysis". PLoS ONE. 12 (2): e0170772. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0170772. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5325204. PMID 28234940.
Get back to sleep when you wake up at night. Whether you have a sleep disorder or not, it’s normal to wake briefly during the night. If you’re having trouble getting back to sleep, try focusing on your breathing, meditating, or practicing another relaxation technique. Make a note of anything that’s worrying you and resolve to postpone worrying about it until the next day when it will be easier to resolve.

In addressing sleep disorders and possible solutions, there is often a lot of buzz surrounding melatonin. Research suggests that melatonin is useful in helping people to fall asleep faster (decreased sleep latency), to stay asleep longer, and to experience improved sleep quality. In order to test this, a study was conducted that compared subjects that had taken Melatonin to subjects that had taken a placebo pill in subjects with primary sleep disorders. Researchers assessed sleep onset latency, total minutes slept, and overall sleep quality in the Melatonin and placebo groups to note the differences. In the end, researchers found that melatonin decreased sleep onset latency, increased total sleep time, and improved quality of sleep significantly more than the placebo group.[49][50]

Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that involves excessive, uncontrollable daytime sleepiness. It is caused by a dysfunction of the brain mechanism that controls sleeping and waking. If you have narcolepsy, you may have “sleep attacks” in the middle of talking, working, or even driving. Although no cure yet exists, a combination of treatments can help control symptoms and enable you to enjoy many normal activities.
In Alzheimer's disease, in addition to cognitive decline and memory impairment, there is also significant sleep disturbances with a modified sleep architecture.[30][29] The latter may consist in sleep fragmentation, a reduction in sleep duration, insomnia, an increase daytime naping, a decreased quantity og some sleep stages and a resemblance between some sleep stages (N1 and N2).[29] More than 65% of people with Alzheimer's disease suffer from this type of sleep disturbance.[29]
Ask your doctor for a referral to an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist, who can evaluate whether you're a candidate for Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP), a specially designed nasal mask that prevents your nasal passages from collapsing and delivers air directly into your airway. If tongue position during sleep is causing your UARS, the doctor may recommend a dental device that pushes the jaw and tongue forward and prevents the tongue from blocking the opening to the throat.
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