One factors that could explain this change in sleep architecture is a change in circadian rhythm, which regulates sleep.[29] A disruption of the circadian rhythm would therefore generate sleep disturbances.[29] Some studies show that people with AD have a delayed circadian rhythm, whereas in normal aging we will find an advanced circadian rhythm.[29][31]

^ Tranah, Gregory J.; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L.; Ancoli‐Israel, Sonia; Paudel, Misti L.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Cauley, Jane A.; Redline, Susan; Hillier, Teresa A. (2011). "Circadian activity rhythms and risk of incident dementia and mild cognitive impairment in older women". Annals of Neurology. 70 (5): 722–732. doi:10.1002/ana.22468. ISSN 1531-8249.
The neurodegenerative conditions are commonly related to brain structures impairment, which might disrupt the states of sleep and wakefulness, circadian rhythm, motor or non motor functioning.[22][24] On the other hand, sleep disturbances are also frequently related to worsening patient's cognitive functioning, emotional state and quality of life.[24][27][28] Furthermore, these abnormal behavioural symptoms negatively contribute to overwhelming their relatives and caregivers.[24][27][28] Therefore, a deeper understanding of the relationship between sleep disorders and neurodegenerative diseases seems to be extremely important, mainly considering the limited research related to it and the increasing expectancy of life.[22][28]

People who have insomnia don't feel as if they get enough sleep at night. They may have trouble falling asleep or may wake up frequently during the night or early in the morning. Insomnia is a problem if it affects your daytime activities. Insomnia has many possible causes, including stress, anxiety, depression, poor sleep habits, circadian rhythm disorders (such as jet lag), and taking certain medications.
This clock is a small part of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. It sits just above the nerves leaving the back of our eyes. Light and exercise "reset" the clock and can move it forward or backward. Abnormalities related to this clock are called circadian rhythm disorders ("circa" means "about," and "dies" means "day").
Histamine plays a role in wakefulness in the brain. An allergic reaction over produces histamine causing wakefulness and inhibiting sleep[37] Sleep problems are common in people with allergic rhinitis. A study from the N.I.H. found that sleep is dramatically impaired by allergic symptoms and that the degree of impairment is related to the severity of those symptoms [2]s[38] Treatment of allergies has also been shown to help sleep apnea.[39]
What to do: The best way to approach this issue is to try not to wake up in the first place. To do that, look at how often you're waking up and what's contributing to that. Men: Get your prostate checked, since inflammation of the prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPN), and prostate tumors can all cause this symptom. In women, frequent urination can go hand in hand with urinary issues such as incontinence , an overactive bladder, urinary tract infections, or cystitis. So see your doctor to be checked for these problems. Urinary tract problems, such as an overactive bladder, can be helped with Kegel exercises. Both men and women can learn these exercises to strengthen the muscles at the neck of the bladder.
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