Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects around 4% of men and 2% of women in the United States. In general, this disorder is more prevalent among men. However, this difference tends to diminish with age. Women experience the highest risk for OSA during pregnancy. Also, they tend to report experiencing depression and insomnia in conjunction with obstructive sleep apnea. In a meta-analysis of the various Asian countries, India and China present the highest prevalence of the disorder. Specifically, about 13.7% of the Indian population and 7% of Hong-Kong's population is estimated to have OSA. The two groups experience daytime OSA symptoms such as difficulties concentrating, mood swings, or high blood pressure, at similar rates (prevalence of 3.5% and 3.57%, respectively).
Combining results from 17 studies on insomnia in China, a pooled prevalence of 15.0% is reported for the country. This is considerably lower than a series of Western countries (50.5% in Poland, 37.2% in France and Italy, 27.1% in USA). However, the result is consistent among other East Asian countries. Men and women residing in China experience insomnia at similar rates. A separate meta-analysis focusing on this sleeping disorder in the elderly mentions that those with more than one physical or psychiatric malady experience it at a 60% higher rate than those with one condition or less. It also notes a higher prevalence of insomnia in women over the age of 50 than their male counterparts.
^ Jump up to: a b c Cao, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Shi-Bin; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Zhang, Ling; Ungvari, Gabor S.; Ng, Chee H.; Li, Lu; Chiu, Helen F. K.; Lok, Grace K. I. (2017-02-24). "The prevalence of insomnia in the general population in China: A meta-analysis". PLoS ONE. 12 (2): e0170772. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0170772. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5325204. PMID 28234940.
Interestingly, the glymphatic cleanrance occurs during the NREM sleep, and more specifically the NREM SWS sleep. As seen previously, it is a sleep stage that decreases in normal aging. So there is less glymphatic clearance and an increase in AB burden that will form the AB plaques. Therefor, in AD sleep disturbances will amplify this phenomenon.
Sleep disorders are a group of conditions that affect the ability to sleep well on a regular basis. Whether they are caused by a health problem or by too much stress, sleep disorders are becoming increasingly common in the United States. In fact, more than 75 percent of Americans between ages 20 and 59 report having sleeping difficulties fairly regularly.
Interestingly, it has been shown that the sleep-wake cycle acts on the beta-amyloid burden which is a central component found in AD. Indeed, during waking, the production of beta-amyloid protein will be more consistent than during sleep. This is explained by two phenomena. The first is that the metabolic activity will be higher during waking and thus will secrete more beta-amyloid protein. The second is that oxidative stress will also be higher and lead to increased AB production.
What to do: The best way to approach this issue is to try not to wake up in the first place. To do that, look at how often you're waking up and what's contributing to that. Men: Get your prostate checked, since inflammation of the prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPN), and prostate tumors can all cause this symptom. In women, frequent urination can go hand in hand with urinary issues such as incontinence , an overactive bladder, urinary tract infections, or cystitis. So see your doctor to be checked for these problems. Urinary tract problems, such as an overactive bladder, can be helped with Kegel exercises. Both men and women can learn these exercises to strengthen the muscles at the neck of the bladder.